According to the National Institute of Health, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of Zinc-L-carnosine (ZnC) support the maintenance, prevention, and treatment of the gut’s mucosal lining and other epithelial tissues. The research supports its use for gastric ulcers (approved in Japan) and conditions of the upper GI and suggests other applications, particularly for oral mucositis. Several studies report that the PepZin GI™ brand of ZnC restores the gastric lining, but also tissue in other parts of the GI tract.
In Japan, H. Ishihama and his team found that ZnC mouth rinse effectively improved oral mucosal injury due to cancer treatments in 423 patients who were experiencing symptoms of oral mucosal injury. ZnC is also used in Japan for the treatment of stomach ulcers. ZnC was proven to be 72% effective among 258 subjects with confirmed stomach ulcers who were treated with 150 mg ZnC per day.
Urolithin A supplements may provide a way to stimulate mitophagy in older people and help them maintain strength and endurance. David Marcinek, Ph.D., a professor of radiology at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, and his team are doing preliminary clinical trial to find out the efficacy and safety of such supplements (1). “Part of the issue is that as we age, our cells progressively lose their capacity for ‘mitophagy’, which is the breakdown and recycling of faulty mitochondria,” says Dr. Marcinek.
Researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) and life-science company Amazentis similarly found a way to reduce muscle decline and low energy with a highly pure Urolithin A supplement, says a March 22 2022 Popular Science reported (2). Urolithin A boosts mitophagy. Urolithin A is produced as a by-product of mitophagy — when gut bacteria digest specific ingredients such as pomegranates, nuts, and berries. Mitophagy is the process of breaking down old worn out mitochondria. Mitochondria converts food into energy, generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) life-sustaining chemical tissue.
An August 2022 study showed Urolithin A improved mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration from joints of both healthy donors and Osteoarthritis (OA) in mice, says the report in Pubmed.org, National Institute of Health. Urolithin A reduced disease progression in a mouse model of OA, decreasing cartilage degeneration, synovial inflammation, and pain (3).
The influence of genetic variation on the rate of depression ranges from 37% to 48%, showing a strong relation between family history and depression. The gut microbiome can be a promising approach for managing depression.
Gut dysbiosis is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) by involvement with various aspects of Gut-brain axis (GBA). It promotes neuroinflammation and causes behaviour alteration, according to the September 07, 2022 Science Direct report.
There are three diet metabolites – kynurenine, tryptophan, and propionic acid – that greatly influence the activities of the gut microbiome and the deficiencies of which can contribute to depression. Researchers found that depression disorder also shows gut-brain dysregulation, an increase in inflammatory cytokines in the blood of depressive patients, dysregulation in fatty acid metabolism, neuropeptide, gut hormone and neurotransmitter synthesis, and abnormal immune system activation, as reported by Science Direct.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition when the body’s immune system starts to attack itself. Proteins called antibodies, known as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), which usually help fight off viruses and bacteria, begin to attack the joints instead, according to Meagan Chriswell, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus in the Conversation October 27, 2022 article.
Previous studies have shown the presence of RA-related autoantibodies years before the onset of clinical RA. Researchers studied 81 individuals with pre-RA symptoms to full diagnosis. The study found that ACPA expansion and the presence of specific cytokines, is closely correlated with the appearance of preclinical inflammation.
Scientists discovered the culprit may also be is the presence of Subdoligranulum didolesgii not present in healthy people, which activates T-cells in the body known to drive inflammation.
A clinical study led by Kings College London Professor of Dietetics Kevin Whelan investigated how gut microbes break down almonds to produce butyrate, a specific microbiota product associated with several health benefits.
This new research found that consuming almonds significantly increases butyrate, a type of beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by microbes in the colon when they digest fiber. Butyrate is the primary fuel source for colonocytes, the cells that line the colon, according to the study funded by the Almond Board of California. 87 healthy adults participated in this 4-week study.
Results from the study showed significant differences in stool frequency as well as significant increases in butyrate in the colon. Other measured outcomes from the study included relative abundance of fecal bifidobacteria, fecal microbiota composition and diversity, fecal SCFAs, whole-gut transit time, gut pH, stool output (both frequency and consistency), and gut symptoms.
Researchers found that enzymes from certain bacteria in the soil turns carbon dioxide in the air into carbon molecules, a process that helps reduce the carbon footprint which drives climate change.
An international consortium of university researchers including Stanford’s Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have figured out a way to potentially artificially duplicate the process in lab, according to an April 29 2022 report by Glennda Chui of the Stanford National Accelerator Lab.
The process known as carbon fixing, is the key component in photosynthesis. But instead of a 20 times slower process in plants, the soil bacteria, Kitasatospora setae, relies on enzymes called Rubisco. Researchers also found it can also produce antibiotics, according to Chui’s article quoting Soichi Wakatsuki, a professor at SLAC and Stanford.
The next step will be to build on an enhanced version of the artificial process.
MIT News reported April 11 2022 that MIT researchers successfully engineered a bacteria based antibiotic treatment. The enzyme of this bacteria can help reduce the risk of inflammation caused by antibiotics.
MIT engineers developed a strain of bacteria that is safe for human consumption that safely produces an enzyme that breaks down a class of antibiotics called beta-lactams. These include ampicillin, amoxicillin, and other commonly used drugs, according to the MIT News article.
James Collins, the Termeer Professor of Medical Engineering and Science in MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES) and Department of Biological Engineering, and the senior author of the new study, refers to this application as “living biotherapeutics”.
Producer of ‘Messenger Molecules’ (Neurotransmitters).
“The bacteria inside our guts, microbiomes, comprise an unlimited numbers of species and strains. They differ from person to person with limited or no relationship from person to person. They are, among other things, ‘messenger molecules’ associated with the brain that circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream. They even produce neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals our brain uses to communicate with the rest of the body.” Viome, a company founded by Seattle area based Naveen Jain, was born out of the prestigious Los Alamos National Laboratory, which licensed technology that was designed for national security. “Every disease starts in the gut. This (Viome) technology came out of Los Alamos Laboratory where the United States spent hundreds of millions of dollars developing (the technology) for the biodefense war. They wanted to know that if some bad actor were to get a hold of some biological (weapon), we would need to know what would be making us sick?”
Conversely the same technology can be used to data mine your biology to achieve maximum health benefits. This is the approach Viome took.
According to a February 22, 2022 Medical News Today report, researchers from the United States analyzed data from a large cross-sectional study of CARDIA, Coronary Artery Risk Development, in Young Adults and found a link between gut microbial composition and cognitive status in middle-aged adults.
607 stool samples were studied for DNA sequencing of adults across the country with a mean age of 55. The genera Barnesiella, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia were positively associated with at least one of the cognitive tests, while Sutterella was negatively associated with one test.
Scientists believe that short-chain fatty acids play a part in regulating how the gut and brain interact. Short-chain fatty acids have been associated with protection against vascular dementia and cognitive impairment, according to the Medical News Today article.
According to Popular Science, researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) and life-science company Amazentis believes they have found a way to reduce muscle decline and low energy with a highly pure Urolithin A supplement.
Mitochondria which converts food into energy, generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) life-sustaining chemical tissue, and mitophagy which is the process of breaking down old worn out mitochondria. The March 22 2022 Popular Science report says researchers found that Urolithin A boosts mitophagy. It is produced as a by-product when gut bacteria digest specific ingredients such as pomegranates.
On April 19 2022 Mind Body Green reported a study that found “that capsaicin (in cayenne pepper) alters the gut microbial community structure by increasing the diversity of the community.” Capsaicin is an antioxidant said to aid in proper digestion, with anti-inflammatory effects. Researchers used the in vitro model to conduct their research.
Capsaicin stimulates the nerves in your stomach and us said to help to increase the production of digestive fluid. According to WebMD, it sends enzymes to the stomach to aid in digestion, and protectshe the stomach from infections.