According to a recent Science Direct report, gut-brain signalling, interactions between the microbiota and physiological processes such as the immune system are emerging as an essential pathway for the gut-brain axis.

Additionally, evidence suggests the gut microbiota regulates brain function and behaviour throughout life.

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Parental lifestyle and health, antibiotic exposure, food choice, mental health, alcohol consumption, weight, and environment are all factors in immune system development. This includes immunity in response to pathogens and immune tolerance against non-pathogenic stimuli. These collectively influence gut microbiota composition which may have enduring effects on brain function and gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal diseases such as dysbiosis.

Microbial colonisation of the gut occurs in early life. Maternal immune activation (MIA) and maternal stress have been found to influence the onset of neurological disorders or the healthy development of our gut microbiome, “immune training, metabolic function, and even neurodevelopmental outcomes”, says the Science Direct report.

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